Today is the 212th day of 2017 and the 42nd day of summer.
TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1914, trading on the New York Stock Exchange stopped in response to the outbreak of World War I. It did not resume until December of that year.
In 1964, the American space probe Ranger 7 transmitted the first close-up photographs of the moon.
In 1991, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the START 1 treaty, an agreement to reduce both countries' nuclear arms stockpiles.
In 2006, Cuban dictator Fidel Castro underwent surgery and transferred presidential power to his brother Raul.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Milton Friedman (1912-2006), economist; Primo Levi (1919-1987), chemist/author; Geoffrey Lewis (1935-2015), actor; Evonne Goolagong Cawley (1951- ), tennis player; Michael Biehn (1956- ), actor; Mark Cuban (1958- ), Dallas Mavericks owner; Wesley Snipes (1962- ), actor; J.K. Rowling (1965- ), author; Zac Brown (1978- ), musician; B.J. Novak (1979- ), actor; DeMarcus Ware (1982- ), football player; Charlie Carver (1988- ), actor; A.J. Green (1988- ), football player.
TODAY'S FACT: The first U.S. patent was issued to inventor Samuel Hopkins on this day in 1790, for a process of making potash, an ingredient used in fertilizer.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 2012, American swimmer Michael Phelps broke Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina's long-standing career Olympic medal record, winning his 19th medal with a victory in the 4-x-200 relay.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "Sooner or later in life everyone discovers that perfect happiness is unrealizable, but there are few who pause to consider the antithesis: that perfect unhappiness is equally unattainable." -- Primo Levi, "If This Is a Man"
TODAY'S NUMBER: 11.2 million -- estimated population of Cuba in 2016.
TODAY'S MOON: Between first quarter moon (July 30) and full moon (Aug. 7).