TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1879, Thomas Edison successfully tested an electric lightbulb.
In 1892, the original "Pledge of Allegiance" was recited by an estimated 12 million schoolchildren across the United States in honor of the 400th anniversary of Columbus' voyage to the New World.
In 1959, the Guggenheim Museum opened in New York City.
In 1967, more than 35,000 anti-war protesters stormed the Pentagon, resulting in nearly 700 arrests.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), poet/essayist; Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), inventor/arms manufacturer; Dizzy Gillespie (1917-1993), jazz musician; Celia Cruz (1925-2003), singer; Whitey Ford (1928- ), baseball player; Ursula K. Le Guin (1929-2018), author; Judy Sheindlin (1942- ), judge/TV personality; Benjamin Netanyahu (1949- ), Israeli politician; Carrie Fisher (1956-2016), actress/writer; Ken Watanabe (1959- ), actor; Kim Kardashian (1980- ), model/socialite.
TODAY'S FACT: While there are no posthumous nominations for the Nobel Prizes, they can be awarded posthumously if the winner dies before the Dec. 10 ceremony.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 1975, Red Sox catcher Carlton Fisk hit a home run that glanced off the foul pole at Fenway Park in Boston, giving the Red Sox a 12th-inning victory over the Cincinnati Reds in Game 6 of the World Series.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "Truths ... are too often considered as so true, that they lose all the power of truth, and lie bed-ridden in the dormitory of the soul, side by side with the most despised and exploded errors." -- Samuel Taylor Coleridge
TODAY'S NUMBER: 13.5 -- hours Thomas Edison's first prototype electric incandescent lightbulb lasted before burning out.
TODAY'S MOON: Between first quarter moon (Oct. 16) and full moon (Oct. 24).