TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1798, the U.S. Marine Corps was re-established, having been disbanded since April 1783.
In 1804, former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton was fatally wounded in a duel with Vice President Aaron Burr.
In 1960, Harper Lee's "To Kill a Mockingbird" was published.
In 1987, the United Nations estimated that the world's population had reached 5 billion.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: John Quincy Adams (1767-1848), sixth U.S. president; E.B. White (1899-1985), author; Yul Brynner (1920-1985), actor; David Kelly (1929-2012), actor; Giorgio Armani (1934- ), fashion designer; Leon Spinks (1953- ), boxer; Sela Ward (1956- ), actress; Suzanne Vega (1959- ), singer-songwriter; Jeff Corwin (1967- ), naturalist/TV personality; Lil' Kim (1975- ), rapper; Patrick Peterson (1990- ), football player; Alessia Cara (1996- ), singer-songwriter.
TODAY'S FACT: William Howard Taft, who was sworn in as chief justice of the United States on this day in 1921, is the only person in history to serve as both chief justice and president of the United States.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 1914, Babe Ruth made his major league debut, pitching seven innings for the Boston Red Sox in a 4-3 victory over the Cleveland Indians.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "To furnish the means of acquiring knowledge is ... the greatest benefit that can be conferred upon mankind. It prolongs life itself and enlarges the sphere of existence." -- John Quincy Adams
TODAY'S NUMBER: 18 -- documented duels between 1798 and 1845 at the site known as the Heights of Weehawken in New Jersey, where the Burr-Hamilton duel took place.
TODAY'S MOON: Between first quarter moon (July 9) and full moon (July 16).