TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1918, abdicated czar Nicholas II and his family were executed by Bolsheviks at Yekaterinburg, Russia.
In 1945, President Harry S. Truman, Soviet Premier Josef Stalin and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at the Potsdam Conference in Germany.
In 1955, Disneyland opened in Anaheim, California.
In 1975, a U.S. Apollo spacecraft docked with a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft, and astronauts from both countries held the first international meeting in space.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Erle Stanley Gardner (1889-1970), author/lawyer; James Cagney (1899-1986), actor; Art Linkletter (1912-2010), TV personality; Phyllis Diller (1917-2012), comedian/actress; John Cooper (1923-2000), automobile designer; Vince Guaraldi (1928-1976), composer; Diahann Carroll (1935- ), actress; Donald Sutherland (1935- ), actor; David Hasselhoff (1952- ), actor; Mark Burnett (1960- ), television producer; Dawn Upshaw (1960- ), opera singer; Luke Bryan (1976- ), singer-songwriter.
TODAY'S FACT: Disneyland's opening day, intended as an exclusive event with limited invitations, was a disaster. Counterfeit passes and thousands of uninvited guests led to overcrowding, power outages, malfunctioning rides and depleted concessions.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 2005, Tiger Woods won the British Open, becoming only the second golfer (after Jack Nicklaus) to win each major championship more than once.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "The best fighters don't worry about what the other man may do. And if they keep things moving fast enough, the other man is too busy to do much thinking." -- Erle Stanley Gardner, "The Case of the Baited Hook"
TODAY'S NUMBER: 20 -- U.S. Air Force B-2 Spirit stealth bombers in service. The first flight of the aircraft was completed at Edwards Air Force Base in California on this day in 1989.
TODAY'S MOON: Between full moon (July 16) and last quarter moon (July 24).