TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1863, Union troops led by Col. Robert Gould Shaw and the African American soldiers in the 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry attacked Fort Wagner in South Carolina.
In 1936, Spanish army officials revolted, led by Gen. Francisco Franco, starting the Spanish Civil War.
In 1947, President Harry S. Truman signed the second Presidential Succession Act, designating the speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate as next in line after the vice president.
In 2013, the city of Detroit, Michigan, filed for the largest municipal bankruptcy in U.S. history, estimated at $18 million to $20 million.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Red Skelton (1913-1997), actor/comedian; Nelson Mandela (1918-2013), South African president; John Glenn (1921-2016), astronaut/U.S. senator; Hunter S. Thompson (1937-2005), journalist; James Brolin (1940- ), actor; Joe Torre (1940- ), baseball player/manager; Steve Forbes (1947- ), publisher; Richard Branson (1950- ), entrepreneur; Vin Diesel (1967- ), actor; Kristen Bell (1980- ), actress.
TODAY'S FACT: The technology company Intel, founded on this day in 1968, generated $2,672 in first-year revenue. The company currently has a market value of $215 billion.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 1976, Nadia Comaneci of Romania became the first athlete to be awarded a perfect 10 score in an Olympic gymnastics event.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "Life has become immeasurably better since I have been forced to stop taking it seriously." -- Hunter S. Thompson
TODAY'S NUMBER: 180,000 -- African American men who served as soldiers in the U.S. Army during the Civil War. Roughly half were former slaves from Confederate states.
TODAY'S MOON: Between full moon (July 16) and last quarter moon (July 24).