TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1899, the first Hague Conventions defining the "laws of war" were signed.
In 1948, the first Olympic Games since 1936 began in London.
In 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, creating NASA.
In 1965, the first 4,000 paratroopers from the 101st Airborne Division arrived in Vietnam.
In 1981, Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer were married at St. Paul's Cathedral in London.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859), writer/historian/political scientist; Benito Mussolini (1883-1945), Italian dictator; Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898-1988), physicist; Clara Bow (1905-1965), actress; Dag Hammarskjold (1905-1961), Swedish diplomat; Elizabeth Dole (1936- ), U.S. senator; Peter Jennings (1938-2005), TV news anchor; Ken Burns (1953- ), documentary filmmaker; Tim Gunn (1953- ), TV personality; Martina McBride (1966- ), singer-songwriter; Wil Wheaton (1972- ), actor; Josh Radnor (1974- ), actor.
TODAY'S FACT: General Motors Corp. acquired the Cadillac Automobile Co. for $4.5 million in GM stock on this day in 1909.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 2003, Bill Mueller of the Boston Red Sox became the only major league batter in history to hit grand slams from both sides of the plate in a single game. The Red Sox defeated the Texas Rangers 14-7.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "I do not know if the people of the United States would vote for superior men if they ran for office, but there can be no doubt that such men do not run." -- Alexis de Tocqueville, "Democracy in America"
TODAY'S NUMBER: 700 million -- estimated number of people worldwide who watched the wedding of Prince Charles and Diana Spencer on television.
TODAY'S MOON: Between last quarter moon (July 24) and new moon (July 31).