TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1918, abdicated czar Nicholas II and his family were executed by Bolsheviks at Yekaterinburg, Russia.
In 1945, President Harry S. Truman, Soviet Premier Josef Stalin and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at the Potsdam Conference in Germany.
In 1955, Disneyland opened in Anaheim, California.
In 1975, a U.S. Apollo spacecraft docked with a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft, and astronauts from the two countries held the first international meeting in space.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Erle Stanley Gardner (1889-1970), author/lawyer; James Cagney (1899-1986), actor; Art Linkletter (1912-2010), TV personality; Phyllis Diller (1917-2012), comedian/actress; John Cooper (1923-2000), automobile designer; Vince Guaraldi (1928-1976), composer; Diahann Carroll (1935-2019), actress; Donald Sutherland (1935- ), actor; David Hasselhoff (1952- ), actor; Mark Burnett (1960- ), television producer; Dawn Upshaw (1960- ), opera singer; Luke Bryan (1976- ), singer-songwriter.
TODAY'S FACT: Disneyland's opening day, intended as an exclusive event with limited invitations, was a disaster. Counterfeit passes and thousands of uninvited guests led to overcrowding, power outages, malfunctioning rides and depleted concessions.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 2005, Tiger Woods won the British Open, becoming only the second golfer (after Jack Nicklaus) to win each major championship more than once.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "I want my children to have all the things I couldn't afford. Then I want to move in with them." -- Phyllis Diller
TODAY'S NUMBER: 20 -- U.S. Air Force B-2 Spirit stealth bombers in service. The first flight of the aircraft was completed at Edwards Air Force Base in California on this day in 1989.
TODAY'S MOON: Between last quarter moon (July 12) and new moon (July 20).