TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1914, trading on the New York Stock Exchange stopped in response to the outbreak of World War I. It did not resume until December of that year.
In 1964, the American space probe Ranger 7 transmitted the first close-up photographs of the moon.
In 1991, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the START 1 treaty, an agreement to reduce both countries' nuclear arms stockpiles.
In 2006, Cuban dictator Fidel Castro underwent surgery and transferred presidential power to his brother Raul.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Milton Friedman (1912-2006), economist; Primo Levi (1919-1987), chemist/author; Geoffrey Lewis (1935-2015), actor; Evonne Goolagong Cawley (1951- ), tennis player; Michael Biehn (1956- ), actor; Mark Cuban (1958- ), Dallas Mavericks owner; Wesley Snipes (1962- ), actor; J.K. Rowling (1965- ), author; Zac Brown (1978- ), musician; B.J. Novak (1979- ), actor; DeMarcus Ware (1982- ), football player; Charlie Carver (1988- ), actor; A.J. Green (1988- ), football player.
TODAY'S FACT: The first U.S. patent was issued to inventor Samuel Hopkins on this day in 1790, for a process of making potash, an ingredient used in fertilizer.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 2012, American swimmer Michael Phelps broke Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina's long-standing career Olympic medal record, winning his 19th medal with a victory in the 4-x-200 relay.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "Monsters exist, but they are too few in number to be truly dangerous. More dangerous are the common men, the functionaries ready to believe and to act without asking questions." -- Primo Levi
TODAY'S NUMBER: 11.1 million -- estimated population of Cuba in 2020.
TODAY'S MOON: Between first quarter moon (July 27) and full moon (Aug. 3).