TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1790, the first official census of the United States was conducted.
In 1923, President Warren Harding died in San Francisco. Vice President Calvin Coolidge was sworn in as president before dawn the next day.
In 1934, Adolf Hitler united the chancellorship and presidency of Germany under the new title of Fuhrer.
In 1939, Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, requesting that the U.S. research the possibility of atomic weapons.
In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait.
In 2018, Apple Inc. became the world's first trillion-dollar company.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Frederic Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904), sculptor; Jack Warner (1892-1978), film executive; Myrna Loy (1905-1993), actress; Shimon Peres (1923-2016), Israeli prime minister; James Baldwin (1924-1987), writer; Carroll O'Connor (1924-2001), actor; Lamar Hunt (1932-2006), sports executive; Peter O'Toole (1932-2013), actor; Wes Craven (1939-2015), filmmaker; Mary-Louise Parker (1964- ), actress; Kevin Smith (1970- ), filmmaker; Sam Worthington (1976- ), actor.
TODAY'S FACT: The familiar enlarged copy of the Declaration of Independence bearing the signatures of 56 congressional delegates was signed on this day in 1776.
TODAY'S SPORTS: The "Black Sox," eight former Chicago White Sox baseball players charged with defrauding the public in a conspiracy to throw the 1919 World Series, were acquitted on this day in 1921.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "There are so many ways of being despicable it quite makes one's head spin. But the way to be really despicable is to be contemptuous of other people's pain." -- James Baldwin, "Giovanni's Room"
TODAY'S NUMBER: 3,929,214 -- population of the United States as recorded in the 1790 census.
TODAY'S MOON: Between first quarter moon (July 27) and full moon (Aug. 3).